Located in the heart of San Francisco, Golden Gate Park is a colorful whirlwind of flowers, people, and whimsical design. The rectangular park stretches over three miles wide and sees 24 million visitors annually.

The park was created in the 1860s to replicate New York City's Central Park. Originally designed by a 25-year-old civil engineer named William Hammond Hall, the park was carved out of 1013 acres of windswept sand dunes known as Outside Lands (now the name of a music and arts festival that takes place in the park).

Today, it is a marvelous oasis that's home to everything from bona fide Picassos in the De Young Museum to thousands of rare species of fauna in the Conservatory of Flowers.

Like every park, however, Golden Gate has its secrets. Here are some of the mysteries, lesser-known legends, and hidden gems of Golden Gate Park.

1. Tiny Fairy Doors

fairy door San Francisco

Fairy door golden gate park

andreascher.com

If you look hard enough around Golden Gate Park, you might just spy some tiny fairy doors among the glittering flowers. Here's a hint: Two are sequestered in trees in the courtyard between the De Young Museum and Cal Academy. Two more can be found in logs located east of the Japanese Tea Garden by Stow Lake.

The fairy doors were apparently installed there years ago by Tony Powell and his son Rio, who wanted to add their touch of magic to the park. Upon seeing a hollowed-out hole in a eucalyptus tree, they took action. "We decided it ought to have a door," said Powell. "And I wanted it to be authentic — a real working door that would actually contribute to the beauty of the tree and maybe inspire people to notice the magic that was already there."

It's common for children to gather around the fairy doors and leave notes for the enchanting creatures within. "We had no idea there would be lines of kids waiting their turn to peek in the door and see if they might spot a fairy," said Powell. "It's been pretty amazing for me, getting to see the joy and inspiration we help to create. In wanting to show some people a little magic, I ended up witnessing a miracle myself."

2. Bison Paddock

\u200bBison Paddock San Francisco

Bison Paddock San Francisco

mercurynews.com

Golden Gate Park's Bison Paddock is home to a herd of hulking bison. Over the course of its 100-year history, the park has seen some 500 bison born and bred within its pastures. Today, the park is home to one of the longest-running efforts to rear bison in captivity.

3. The Ghost of Stow Lake

Stowe Lake Golden Gate Park

San Francisco Loch Ness Monster

rootsrated.com

Golden Gate Park has been the site of various hauntings over the years, but no place is more haunted than Stow Lake. According to the San Francisco Chronicle, in 1908 a young man spotted a "thin tall figure" by the lake. "It was wet and it seemed to shine," he said. "It was barefoot, I didn't notice the face. I was frightened and anxious to leave." Since then, hundreds of people have reported similar sightings.

4. The Park Was Once a Refugee Camp

San Francisco Earthquake refugee camp in Golden Gate Park

Golden Gate Park refugee camp

sfmuseum.org

Following the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, which killed some 3,000 people and displaced 400,000 more, the park served as a temporary refuge for an estimated 40,000 people. Refugees camped throughout the park, and some even built log cabins during their stay as the city struggledto rebuild.

5. The Giant Cross Behind Rainbow Falls

\u200bPrayer Book Cross

Prayer Book Cross

eBay.com

Dedicated in 1894, the Prayer Book Cross commemorates Sir Francis Drake's landing at nearby Drake's Bay, where he used the Book of Common Prayer for the first time in the United States. Standing 57 feet high, the partially obscured Celtic cross is nestled behind Rainbow Falls and along John F. Kennedy Drive.

6. The Remains of 1101 California Street at Lloyd Lake

\u200b1101 California St. Lloyd Lake

1101 California St.

sanfranciscodays.com

Looming over the blue-green waters of Lloyd Lake is an elegant, pillared structure that's a bittersweet piece of San Francisco lore. A portico is all that remains of Alban Nelson Towne's grand Nob Hill house at 1101 California Street. It was just about completely devastated in the 1906 earthquake. Today, the portico is known as "Portals to the Past" and presents a solemn window into the old-world grandeur of San Francisco.

7. The water flowing uphill at Gravity Hill

Golden Gate Park Gravity Hill

Gravity Hill

marinmommies.com

At the end of Golden Gate Park - as you head towards the ocean - you may come upon a peculiar sight. Located next to a pine tree is what appears to be a stream of greenish water... flowing upwards. This optical illusion is known as a Gravity Hill, an odd phenomenon where the slope of the stream against the nearby path makes it appear that the water is moving towards the sky.

8. The Carousel That Graced the 1939 World's Fair

\u200bGolden Gate Park Carousel

Golden Gate Park Carousel

Electrictourcompany.com

Golden Gate Park's carousel was built by the Herschell-Spillman Company and installed in 1914. It later appeared as one of the premier sites at the 1939 World's Fair on Treasure Island. The carousel's elaborate design makes it a destination for all kinds of children and children-at-heart.

9. Buried Treasure?

\u200bsearching for buried treasure in Golden Gate Park

searching for buried treasure in Golden Gate Park

Marvin Fong/ The Plain Dealer / Atlas Obscura

In 1982, the author Byron Preiss published a book called The Secret that told of 12 ceramic casques buried in parks around the US. And each was purported to contain precious jewels collectively worth as much as $10,000. Since then, many have tried to solve the labyrinthine riddles laid out in the book — but few have been successful. In the 40-odd years since the book's publication, only two have been uncovered. However, most believe that there's definitely a casque hidden somewhere in San Francisco.

Preiss died in 2005, but the quest goes on. A 2018 request to search for buried treasure in the park led the San Francisco Recreation and Park Department to create a new program for so-called "Treasure Rangers," who still frequently show up to dig in the park.

According to The Secret, the casques were planted by the Fair People — a race of nature-dwelling creatures whose existence is threatened by humans. In the story, they flee the Old World for the New World and leave a series of casques containing their precious "wonderstones." They vow that if humans find all the casques, they'll reveal themselves to the world. Will the Fair People creep out of the park's faery doors or rise out of the lake? Time will tell... but in the meanwhile, the mysteries of Golden Gate Park live on.

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